Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Teh DSC 7595 edit
DENR Undersecretary Analiza Rebuelta-Teh (front, 4th from left) poses with the other delegates of the UNI- DO-GEF meeting on "Facilitating Integrated National Programming on Climate Change Mitigation and Chemicals and Wastes," in Bangkok, Thailand on 24-25 April 2018. [UNIDO]

The Kyoto Protocol (KP), otherwise called the "climate protocol," is an international emissions reduction treaty under the UNFCCC. Adopted in 1997, the protocol commits 43 Annex I countries to limit their greenhouse gas emissions for the 1st commitment period 2008-2012 by at least five percent below or equal to the level of their emissions in the base year 1990. The Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005.

The KP put forth three market-based mechanisms in order to assist Annex I countries or the industrialized nations to meet their commitments. These are the (1) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (2) Joint Implementation (JI), and (3) International Emissions Trading. CDM is relevant for developing countries since it allows entities in the industrialized nations to support GHG mitigation projects in developing countries and purchase credits generated by the latter.

The targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol cover emissions of the six main greenhouse gases, namely: Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The maximum amount of emissions (measured as the equivalent in carbon dioxide) that a Party may emit over a commitment period in order to comply with its emissions target is known as a Party's assigned amount. The individual targets for Annex I Parties are listed in the Kyoto Protocol's Annex B ( Only Annex I (developed countries) have binding targets under the Kyoto Protocol that are supposed to be accomplished at the end of 2020. The Philippines is not part of the Annex I countries and therefore, has no targets to reduce its GHG emissions under the Kyoto Protocol.

Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol


During the 8th session of the Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) held in Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012, the parties adopted the Doha amendment to the KP by decision 1/CMP.8 in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Kyoto Protocol.

Article 1, Section B of the Amendment states that the following list shall replace the list under the heading "Greenhouse Gases" in Annex A to the Kyoto Protocol: Greenhouse gases---Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).

Inter alia, Article 3, Paragraph 1 of the Doha Amendment states that the Parties included in Annex I (developed countries, including those undergoing transition to a market economy) shall, individually or jointly, ensure that their aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the Greenhouse Gases listed in Annex A do not exceed their assigned amounts, calculated pursuant to their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments inscribed in the third column of the table contained in Annex B (Quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment) and in accordance with the provisions of this Article, with a view to reducing their overall emissions of such gases by at least 18 percent below 1990 levels in the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, i.e., 2013 to 2020.

Article 20, paragraph 4 of the Doha Amendment states that it will enter into force for those Parties having accepted it on the 90th day after the date of receipt by the Depository of an instrument of acceptance by at least three fourths of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. However, as of 21 February 2019, only 126 Parties out of the required 144 parties have deposited their instrument of acceptance.

Developing countries (Non-Annex 1 Parties) such as the Philippines do not have the obligation to reduce GHG emissions under the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol.
Focal Office:
Environmental Management Bureau (EMB)
Date Ratified:
November 20, 2003
Focal Persons/Offices:
Secretary, DENR
Tel. No. (632) 926 3011, 920 4301, 929 6626 loc 2258

Undersecretary for Policy, Planning and International Affairs, DENR
Tel. No. (632) 928 1186

Director, DENR-EMB
Tel. No. (632) 928 3725, 927 1517

Secretariat, Philippine DNA for CDM/Kyoto Protocol
Chief, Climate Change Division, DENR-EMB Tel. No. (632) 920 2251
Binding targets for Kyoto Protocol are applicable only to Annex I (developed countries), and will end in 2020.
Policy Issuances:
Sources / Relevant Links:


Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism. While the Philippines has no commitments to reduce its GHG emissions under the KP, its focus under the said protocol is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol provides for the CDM, one of three modalities for developed countries to transfer greenhouse emission reduction technologies to developing or underdeveloped countries (non-Annex I countries). The latter group of countries can sell certified emission reductions (CERs), or carbon credits, to the developed countries. A CER is a form of payment to the project proponent to reduce its GHG emissions. Projects eligible under the CDM are those that contribute to emission reduction such projects on renewable energy, energy efficiency improvement and reduction of specific industrial emissions.

By virtue of Presidential Executive Order No. 320 dated 25 June 2004, the DENR was named the Designated National Authority (DNA) for CDM. This was followed by DAO 2005-17 or the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the CDM which assigned the EMB as the CDM Secretariat. As of 3 February 2014 the DENR's accomplishments under the CDM are as follows:
- The Philippines ranked number 11 worldwide in terms of the total number of project activities under the CDM
- 119 CDM applications received for 40 large scale and 79 small scale projects
- At least 8 million Certified Emission Reductions (CER) issued
- 118 Letters of Approval (LOAs) issued for 40 large scale and 78 small scale projects with 8.8M CERs issued
- 70 Registered CDM regular projects with 3.49M CERs. These consist of 21 large projects (1.25 million CERs) and 49 small scale (329,000CERs)
- 4 Registered CDM-Program of Activities (PoAs) covering 2 large scale and 2 small scale with 547,830 CERs
- 10 Project Activities issued CERs of 1.23 million

All CDM applications were processed and approved by the DENR. The latest development is that investments in CDM project activities have notably decreased due to the decreasing demand for carbon credits, which had in turn affected the carbon market. This situation resulted in the significant drop in the price of carbon. Doing business on CDM then became unprofitable or not viable, hence, no longer attractive to investors.
This Page was updated on 23 December 2019 and will be updated on 10 December 2020
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